Please join StudyMode to read the full document. He attended Talmud Torah School, where he was taught the fundamentals of how to be considered an upright Jewish man. His family were Marranos forced converts to Christianity who fled their original country of Portugal to escape the inquisition. He remarried after she died. Michael, however, died when Baruch was twenty-two years old. He ran the family business with his half-brother, Gabriel.
How should we face our mortality? Whether death is—as we all hope—a far off eventuality or, through age or illness, imminent, what is the proper attitude to take? Should we fear death? The ancient Epicureans felt that this was something of a category mistake: you should fear only those things that can harm you, and if you are dead then nothing can harm you. Or, as some religiously minded people might insist, should the end of this life be looked upon with hope, in the expectation that something better awaits in a world-to-come? He was well read in Seneca, Epictetus and others. However, on the topic of death, Spinoza goes his own separate way; in fact, he heads in the completely opposite direction.
The attitude of skepticism, appealing to science and the scientific method as ways of determining what is true, drives critical thinking and applying a variety of information from several sources to reach a fair conclusion. Determinism, the opposite view to that of Libertarianism, argues that there cannot be any human freedom of choice or action. Therefore a determinist would agree that there is no free will. Determinism stems into two major philosophical theories of free will, Hard Determinism, and Compatibilism; Soft Determinism. Both Hard and Soft Determinism follows the Principle of Universal Causality, that is that every event in the world must be caused by some other event.
There have been numerous criticisms on Spinoza as well as plentiful interpretations. But a more accurate label had emerged: panentheism. Spinoza is psychological and ethical egoist. Born in Bruch Spinoza was a descendent of the Portuguese — Jewish community. After much harassment and ill treatment by the Portugal, his family fled to Amsterdam.