Cancer cells become mobile by remodelling their cytoskeleton to form migratory structures. This transformation is dominated by actin assembly and disassembly polymerisation and depolymerisation in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of filamentous actin produces a force at the leading edge that pushes the plasma membrane forward. We describe an assay to measure the restoring force of the membrane in response to forces generated within the cytoplasm adjacent to the membrane. A laser trap is used to form a long membrane nanotube from a living cell and to measure the axial membrane force at the end of the tube. When the tube, resembling a filopodium, is formed and in a relaxed state the axial membrane force exhibits a positive stationary value.
CiteSeerX — Leading Edge Essay Network News: Innovations in 21st Century Systems Biology
The vendors bombard us with the terms like New, Improved, Latest and Greatest, better than ever, and the Fastest. It has becomes so common place consumers have become except to the advertisement and are picking the product not on the Hardware of Software capabilities but are purchasing product strictly on emotions. This is probably not the right way to make a purchase, and here is why. For instances: iPods, Hi Definition Digital Televisions and the top computer equipment and that is where the issue starts.
Merging Leading Edge Technology with Bleeding Edge Technology
Collective cell migration is an adaptive, coordinated interactive process involving cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix ECM microenvironmental interactions. A critical aspect of collective migration is the sensing and establishment of directional movement. It has been proposed that a subgroup of cells known as leader cells localize at the front edge of a collectively migrating cluster and are responsible for directing migration. However, it is unknown how and when leader cells arrive at the front edge and what environmental cues dictate leader cell development and behavior. Here, we addressed these questions by combining a microfluidic device design that mimics multiple tumor microenvironmental cues concurrently with biologically relevant primary, heterogeneous tumor cell organoids.
Marketers have to state who they are trying to persuade, who they are competing with, and how they are better than the competition. We utilize the concepts of design thinking through a journey with our customers. This journey begins with ethnography and co-creation.