In Palm Beach County, Florida, during the summer of a cluster of eight cases of malaria was detected. The background incidence is 60 cases per year Florida and 10 cases per year Palm Beach County. The figure shows two trophozoites, which exhibit a typical ameboid shape; and a schizont, which contains approximately 20 nuclei, compatible with P. The smears were prepared on blood that had been stored for several hours, thus their imperfect quality. One P. The patients were men whose ages varied from median
CASE STUDY: Influenza Epidemic in a Boarding School
Vaccines are a powerful measure to protect the health of individuals and to combat outbreaks such as the COVID pandemic. An ethical dilemma arises when one effective vaccine has been successfully developed against an epidemic disease and researchers seek to test the efficacy of another vaccine for the same pathogen in clinical trials involving human subjects. On the one hand, there are compelling reasons why it would be unethical to trial a novel vaccine when an effective product exists already. First, it is a firm principle of medical ethics that an effective treatment or vaccine should not be withheld from patients if their life may depend on it. Second, since epidemic outbreaks often emerge in settings with less-resourced health systems, there is a pronounced risk that any trial withholding an effective vaccine would disproportionately affect the vulnerable populations that historically have been exploited for biomedical research.
As noted earlier, descriptive epidemiology can identify patterns among cases and in populations by time, place and person. From these observations, epidemiologists develop hypotheses about the causes of these patterns and about the factors that increase risk of disease. In other words, epidemiologists can use descriptive epidemiology to generate hypotheses, but only rarely to test those hypotheses.
By Roni Caryn Rabin. An unvaccinated health care worker set off a Covid outbreak at a nursing home in Kentucky where the vast majority of residents had been vaccinated, leading to dozens of infections, including 22 cases among residents and employees who were already fully vaccinated, a new study reported Wednesday. Most of those who were infected with the coronavirus despite being vaccinated did not develop symptoms or require hospitalization, but one vaccinated individual, who was a resident of the nursing home, died, according to the study released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.